The Hausa tribe of northern Nigeria can be traced back to Bayagida, a prince of Bagdad that married the Queen of Daura; His children founded the true Hausa states known as Hausa Bakwal, such as the today Biram, Daura, Katsina, Zaria, Kano and Gobir. After many years these descendants found another Hausa state called Banza Bakwai, they are the today Zamfara, Kebbi Gwari and Yuari.
Prominent among the rulers of the Hausa states are Mohammed Rimfa (1463 – 1493), he was helped by Almighili; a Muslim scholar and missionary to make Islam, a state religion.
 Zaria became powerful under the rule of Queen Barkwa Turunku and Queen Amina in the 17th and 18th centuries.


The Igbo nation has been in existence since the 10th century, their origin can be traced back to Israel. It is believed that the Igbo’s of the eastern and Southern Nigeria are migrant children of Obed, one of the sons of Judah, the son of Jacob, who fled from their nation around the 9th or 10th centuries during the time of great afflictions of Israel by the Assyrians. They came and settled by the lower end of the river Niger and Cross river regions, where they found fertile ground for their farming occupation. 

Their system of government at the time was the patria-lineal clan system and every clan and village traced themselves back to their ancestors, just like the Israelites. The Clan or village pattern of settlement was an ancient form of democracy.
They are four major institutions of government in the Igbo land.
a.      The Ezes and Ndi Nzes i.e. the Kings
b.      The Ndi amala or Council of elders
c.       The age grade societies
d.      Village assembly called Ohamaeze i.e. king makers

The Igbo tribe remained the most peaceful state before the coming of the European, as they had lesser intra/inter-tribal wars and prevented the Fulani Jihadist from conquering them and imposing Islam


The Yoruba tribes originated from Oduduwa, who came from the North West Africa and settled at Ife, but Oral tradition and believe say that Oduduwa came from heaven to Ile-Ife and created the earth. He had a son known as okanbi and his descendants spread over the lands to the seven Yoruba kingdoms
a.      Oowu
b.      Sabe
c.       Ketu
d.      Popo
e.      Benin
f.        Oyo
g.      Ila
His descendant Oranmiyan formed the Old Oyo kingdom around the 14th century and Ife became the spiritual capital and cultural centre of the kingdom. The government of the Old Kingdom consisted
        i.            Alafin               - who is the spiritual head
      ii.            Oyomesi          - who are seven with the Bashorun as the head, they are like the supreme             council and king makers
    iii.            Ogbonis           - social society that mediates between the Alaafin and Oyomesi
     iv.            Eso                   -  these are the Lords with Are-Ona Kakanfo as the commander-in-Chief
       v.            Ilari                  - these are the palace officials and administrators.
The Oyo kingdom was once ruled by an Allaafin by the name of Sango, who is now worshiped as the god of war and thunder; in 1765, the Bashorun Gaha upset the balance to his own favor and reduced the powers of the Alaafins, but in 1770, Alaafin Abiodun destroyed Gaha and his family and restored the powers of the Alaafin as before.

In 1817, Kakanfo Afonja, commander-in-chief of the Oyo army revolted against Oyo kingdom. He sought the help of Alimi, Fulani Muslim Jihadist scholar to help defeat Oyo kingdom. Alimi took control of Ilorin in 1831 and Ilorin became part of sokoto caliphate.

In 1837, Fulani Jihadist went down to south and destroyed the Old Oyo Kingdom.
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